The chemical name of prochlorperazine is 2-chloro-10-[3-(4- methyl-1- piperazinyl)-prophyl] phenothiazine.
Molecular formula, molecular weight and structure:
► Molecular formula: C20H24CIN3S
► Molecular weight: 373.95
► Molecular formula: C20H24CIN3S • 2C4H4O4
► Molecular weight: 606.10
► Molecular formula: C20H24CIN3S • 2CH3SO3H
► Molecular weight: 566.20
► Molecular formula: C20H24CIN3S • C2H6O6 S2
► Molecular weight: 564.14
Following oral administration, prochlorperazine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and has a 30 – 40 minutes onset of action with 3 – 4 hours duration of action. Oral extended release preparation prolongs duration of action up to 10 – 12 hours. Rectal suppository has a 1 hour onset of action with 3 – 4 hours duration of action. Intramuscular (IM) injection has a 10 – 20 minutes onset of action and last for up to 12 hours.
Prochlorperazine is a highly plasma protein bounded drug and has a large volume of distribution. It is widely distributed into body tissues including the brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, skin and lungs. It crosses the placenta and enters into the fetal body. It is excreted in the breast milk.
This drug is metabolized mainly in the liver by the process of oxidation and conjugation. The rate of metabolism decreases in old age.
Excretion mainly occurs through the feces. Only a small amount of prochlorperazine and its metabolized are excreted through the urine. The excretion half life is approximately 24 hours. The rate of excretion decreases in old age.